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The average size for a longhorn cowfish is approximately 16 inches in length.
Longhorn cowfish can be found in the warm waters of the Indo-Pacific region.
Longhorn cowfish can be found in bays and estuaries among weedy areas near rocky areas, coral reefs, mud flats and sandy habitats.
Feeding mostly on bottom dwelling invertebrates, sponges, algae and even the occasional smaller fish, longhorn cowfish can spit water to uncover prey items hiding under the sandy bottom.
Longhorn cowfish predation by larger fish such as tuna has been documented but these fish can secrete a toxin to poison potential predators.
Adult longhorn cowfish are typically solitary but can be found in pairs when mating. Fertilization of the eggs is external and both the eggs and larvae are pelagic, meaning they wander through the open ocean.
Size: African penguins range from 18 to 25 inches tall and weigh up to 11 pounds
Range/Distribution: The only penguin to breed in Africa, the African penguin ranges from Namibia to South Africa. Young penguins have been known to migrate north and west along the coastline and are found between Southern Angola, Namibia, and sometimes found off Gabon, Congo, and Mozambique, but generally reside in South Africa.
Appearance: The African penguin has a robust, torpedo-shaped body with black feathers on their back, flippers, and head while white feathers cover their front with the exception of horseshoe-shaped black stripe on the chest. Following the penguin’s first few molts a white stripe will develop around its cheek and throat. These birds have a bare patch above their eyes to assist with regulating their body temperature.
Habitat: When not hunting for food in the water, African penguins are found along rocky shores or brushy coastal areas.
Prey: African penguins feed on 25 species of fish, such as sardine and anchovy but also prey on squid and krill. A penguin may eat up to one pound of food or up to 14% of their weight.
Predators: African penguins face predation by gulls, feral cats and mongoose while nesting on land, while sharks and fur seals hunt African penguins in the water.
Life Span: The African penguin may live up to late 30 years in an aquarium or zoo but averages of 15-20 years are seen in the wild populations.
Mating Behaviors: There are no set breeding seasons for African penguins, however, most penguin pairs are monogamous and will remain together over several breeding years. The male will prepare a nest by digging a shallow burrow in sand or in brush using guano (penguin waste) and any materials nearby to complete the nest for the female to lay two eggs. Both the male and female share the nesting and chick duties, keeping the young safe from predators and warm temperatures. The chicks will hatch between 38 and 42 days and will leave the nest when they are between 60 to 130 days of age.
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